Skip to main content

Full text of "Indians at work"

See other formats

e 77 


WAHJ- ■ 




— _ 




Volume V Number 9 

Editorial John Collier 1 

Tribal And Federal Planning And Funds Unite In 

Economic Development Program At Blackf eet 7 

Washington Office Visitors 10 

A Rlsume Of Indian Cattle Sales - 1937 John T. Montgomery 11 

Organization News 14 

Indian Silver Trade-Mark Now Available 14 

Miller Flat Community Improves Its Live-Stock . . Alferd Smith 15 

Albuquerque Indian School Student's Drawing 

Adopted For Use In Exposition 15 

Are A Superintendent's Wife's Services Worth 

A Dollar A Year? 17 

Klamath Timber Committee Does Outstanding Work . George S. Kephart 13 

The Ballad Of Charlie McCoffus 21 

Election To Be Held At Consolidated Chippewa 

Jurisdiction, On Agency Location 22 

Shelter belt Work In Oklahoma And Kansas A. C Monahan 23 

Notes From An Indian Reorganization Agent's 

Report Henry Roe Cloud 26 

Little Soldier , Aged Standing Rock Sioux, Dies 26 

Book Truck Serves Indian Schools In Southern 

Ari zona 27 

Soil Conservation Problems At The Other End 

Of The World . 28 

Indians In The News 33 

Fifth Anniversary of CCC Celebrated 35 

Correction 35 

CCC-ID Educational Program At Flandreau, 

South Dakota 36 

The Good Times Are Gone, Said Indians Of 1789 .. Eva L. Butler 37 

Alex Posey , Creek Poet, Honored Margaret La Hay 38 

Cover Design 33 

From CCC-ID Reports ■. 39 


Photograph by Andrew T. Kelley 

A Nc^s SrxIQkJr* tot* l&tticm: 
emct $-ri<2. mo-wan S<z,r>\/\c<z, 

f i 'J 


The Lost Apaches of Mexico are not a myth. Dr. Helge 
Ingstad, Norwegian ethnologist, formerly Governor of Greenland 
and Spitzbergen, who sought them last year, brings news. There is 
a vast mountain, a hundred and fifty miles below Douglass, Arizona, 
in Mexico. It rises to thirteen thousand feet and is cleft with 
huge canyons. There, on ledges such as mountain -lions or eagles 
might occupy, or constantly moving from place to place, sometimes 
afoot, sometimes on stolen horses; and weaponless except for bows 
and arrows; and living on desert wild plants: there, he states, 
are the Lost Apaches- Most of the survivors are women, with a few 
children. Dr. Ingstad never talked with them face to face, but saw 
them at distances of a hundred yards, clad in buckskins, fleeing on 
The ancient Apache-Mexican feud carries down, and "Kill them .on 
sight" is the rule toward Apaches, he says. Their extinction could 
be prevented if they could be reached and led back into the United 

States. Possibly Dr. Ingstad will try again, next year. He is 
returning to Norway now, leaving this strange and sad account with 
the Indian Office. 

Indians in New Mexico do not vote. They are disfranchised 
under the State's constitution. 

But the Taylor Grazing Act is a federal law, and the pub- 
lic domain is federal land. The Taylor Grazing Act draws no dis- 
tinction against Indians. 

The Grazing Advisory Board of District 2-A is local to 
New Mexico. Its opinions are reviewed by the Department of the 

That Board summarily, sweepingly, as now reported, has 
rejected every application of every Pueblo for grazing rights on 
the public domain. The Indians, of course, will appeal. 

In making this denial of right to the Pueblos, the Graz- 
ing Advisory Board through its chairman, as quoted, supplied an 
obiter dicta. No Pueblo land, it stated, was overgrazed. Not the 
land of any Pueblo. 

Reading this news today i I allowed my mind to go back to 
Acoma. - to its valley of the Enchanted Mesa. I remembered how, 
four years ago, noting the spread (one could measure it from year 

to year) of those fatal gullies through Acoma land., I saw but little 
hope for Acoma - little hope, and brief, for the "finish" would be 
a matter of a decade. Knowing that Acoma was nearly four hundred 
per cent overstocked, I felt hopeless, four years ego. 

But the Acomas did not take a view like that of the Graz- 
ing Advisory Board, quoted above. Wisely and patiently helped, the 
Acomas studied their own problem. They elected not to dwell in 
dreams - the dreams in which much of the live-stock industry of the 
Southwest still dwells. They fixed their goal, and year by year - 
across three years, now - they reduced their live-stock overload. 
That is only a part of the story, of course. There are soil con- 
servation works, there is range management, there is breeding-up 
of foundation stock, there are improved marketing practices. But 

reduction was primary, basic, it must be, the Acomas knew it must 
be; and without any coercion, they have gone forward with their 
sacrifices. The process is not finished yet, for range rehabilita- 
tion takes nearly as long as range destruction takes, but Acoma.' s 
outlook on the future has been revolutionized. 

Acoma is among the Pueblos whose grazing applications 
were rejected by the Advisory Board. 

Important in its bearing upon Indian equal rights to 
federal benefits is the following wire which reached the Social 

Security Board April 11. It reports the decision of the Montana 
court in the suit against Big Horn County to compel the grant of 
Social Security benefits to ward Indians: 

"All Indians entitled to all forms of re- 
lief, and it must be paid from State funds." 

The Interior Appropriation Bill is still in conference, 
hence its final contents cannot be reported as yet. One fact, how- 
ever, is already known. There will be no new money for land pur- 
chases for Indians under the Reorganization Act, in the year ahead, 
beyond a one-half million to meet contractual obligations already 
incurred. The new contractual authorization will not exceed one 
quarter-million. This is grim news for many tribes. But let us 
keep our perspective. In the forty-five years before 1933, Indian 
land losses averaged two million acres a year. In the years since 
1933, Indian land gains have totaled nearly a million and a half 
acres a year. None the less, the slowing-down of gains, coming 
now, will distress and depress many Indians. The federal land 
acquisition operation in its totality has shrunken, temporarily; 
the shrinkage of the Indians' part of that program is proportion- 
ately the lesser shrinkage. 

However, let us remember two facts, one dark and one 


Indian land acquisition does not solve the problems which 

multiply endlessly down from allotment. Through the non-solution 
of the allotted heirship land problem, more land is being lost to 
effective use than even a generous purchase program would compen- 
sate for. That is the dark fact. 

The bright fact is, that in every Indian area but one 
(where the outcome is trembling in the balance now) the destruction 
of Indian land through soil erosion has been brought under control. 
Soil erosion has stripped the Western range of approximately half 
its vegetative soil in fifty years. Soil erosion on Indian lands 
is being stopped. 

And of the land which they do possess, Indians are them- 
selves utilizing a larger proportion with every year. 

The net picture, in terms of Indian wealth saved and more 
happily, productively used, is a good and an encouraging picture. 
It is one of the best chapters of conservation being written in 
these years . 

ft 1 - 

Commissioner of Indian Affairs 
















w « 














el & 















































































rQ (0 

o © 


<tf © 

CO J3 

1 © EH 

Cfl CO <h I 


** o 

O V. 

SS a 

» f-. 

B CtS 
o © 



Blackfeet Council Members in Washington. Left to right standing: 
Sampson Bird, Wright Ha^erty, William Buffalo Hide, Eddie 
Big Beaver and Stuart Hazlett (Chairman). Seated: 
John Collier, Commissioner and William Zimmerman, 
Assistant Commissioner. 

A unique example of tribal-federal planning for economic 
advancement is being displayed on the Blackfeet Reservation in 
northwestern Montana. Both tribal and federal funds are involved; 
both tribal councilmen and Indian Service workers are sharing in 
the responsibility and the carrying out of the program. 

The economic outlook of the Blackfeet, largest tribe in 
Montana, has been for many years a bleak one. Their reservation, 
just east of Glacier National Park, is subject to high winds and 
bitter winters. Under the present system of use, its 1,207,000 
acres are insufficient for the 4,200 Indians who look to It for 
livelihood and only a minor portion of it is irrigated. In recent 
years the Indians have owned a comparatively small number of live- 
stock and a large part of the reservation's grass is leased to 

outsiders. A few Indians have run their own cattle and sheep; most 
of them, however, have been eking out a living on grazing rentals 
and work relief, unable to obtain the credit with which to launch 
enterprises of their own. 

In the main, the answer to this group's economic problem 
is live-stock. To build up a live-stock industry of their own, 
the Blackfeet need first, credit, and second, irrigated land on 
which hay for winter feed can be raised. It is around these two 
needs that a large part of the program adopted by the tribal del- 
egation which visited Washington in March will center. 

This is the plan in brief: 

Money for credit will come from the tribe and from the 
government. The tribe will set up a $50,000 revolving loan fund 

*-*e . * ■■-■--^ 

Blackfeet Range At The Head Of Milk River 
Near The Canadian Line. 

for loans to individuals and cooperative groups for live-stock 
agricultural equipment, and similar needs. This sum will be sun- 

SlT£r! \ $5 °:?° WhiCh the Indlan Servlce "iH lend the Black- 
M\ r f /JV he Indi «* ^organization Act's revolving credit 

E£ ;ko S ? ^ ^ 6 tribe Wil1 re9erve $25 '°°° of "* own money 
for the development of supplementary credit sources. 

The land situation at Blackfeet has become increasingly 
complicated through the operation of allotment of tracts to individ- 
ual Indians and the splitting up of these tracts through inheritance. 

The Indians feel that the acquisition of certain tracts within ir- 
rigation areas - formerly Indian-owned - and perhaps also certain 
heirship tracts in complicated multiple ownership, will round out 
the holdings of the tribe and make possible the rehabilitation of 
a number of landless families. The tribe is putting aside 

$50,000 for this purpose and the Government, through the Indian Re- 
organization Act land purchase fund, is contributing $79,000. The 
land so purchased will be assigned or leased to members of the 
tribe. Receipts from the land transactions made with tribal money- 
will go back to the tribe to be used for further acquisitions. 

Indian Service rehabilitation funds to the extent of 
$27,500 have been allotted to Blackfeet: for an arts and crafts 
building, for the construction and repair of twenty homestead units 
on the Two Medicine Unit of the irrigation project, and for subjuga- 
tion of land on the irrigation project. The tribe also will spend 
$25,000 of its own money on the construction of these twenty home- 

Good Grazing Country 
Blackfeet Reservation, Montana. 

stead units, including outbuildings, fencing, wells and similar 
equipment. The tribal council is undertaking the responsibility 
of selecting from among the large number of applications already 
received the twenty families who are to occupy the new homesteads 

The key to the whole project, Indian Service workers and 
Indians agree, is irrigation. The sum of $83,000 has been included 
in the Interior Department appropriation bill for 1939 (pending 
when this article was written) to be used for reconditioning the 

irrigation project on the Milk River. CCC-ID funds to the extent 
of $30,000 are also being allotted to this project. 

Actual authority for the Blackfeet to spend part of their 
tribal money "has had to wait for Congressional approval, since all 
existing Indian tribal funds are on deposit in the United States 
Treasury and, are with a few exceptions, at the disposition of 
Congress. By virtue of its charter approved by the Secretary of 
the Interior under authority of the Indian Reorganization Act, how- 
ever, the future Blackfeet tribal funds, like those of other tribes 
similarly organized under the Act, may accrue to the tribal corpora- 
tion and be available for expenditure for purposes approved by the 
tribal council. 

The Indian Service is going to watch this program at 
Blackfeet to which the tribe, through its council, has pledged its 
support, with deep interest. Here is an experiment which, as an ex- 
ample to other tribes, may prove significant and far-reaching. Here 
is a tribe which, instead of dividing its tribal funds into per 
capita payments, is staking them on a tribal venture. The Government, 
convinced of the soundness of the Blackfeet Reservation's economic 
potentialities, and of the ability of the Blackfeet Indians them- 
selves, is investing in these Indians through loans and outright 
grants. The Blackfeet Tribal Council is to be congratulated upon 
its work in planning the new undertaking: the Indian Services wishes 
it and the Blackfeet Indians well in their accomplishments. 


Among the recent visitors to the Washington Office were 
five delegates from the Crow Reservation in Montana - Harry White- 
man, William Bends, Bird Horse, Ties His Knee and Donald Deer Nose, 
who came to discuss numerous tribal matters with the various di- 
vision heads. 

Another tribal delegation which was recently in Washing- 
ton were three members of the Keshena Tribe in Wisconsin, composed 
of Neil Gauthier, Al Dodge and Pete Lookaround, who came to discuss 
various forestry and land problems. 

Other visitors have included William A. Durant, Chief 
of the Choctaws, Elwood Harlan, Winnebago delegate, Miss Alida C. 
Bowler, Superintendent of the Carson Agency, Nevada, Mr. A. M. 
Landman, Superintendent of the Five Civilized Tribes Agency 'in 
Oklahoma and the attorney for the Five Civilized Tribes, James H. 
Finley, and Douglas H. Johnston, Governor of the Chickasaw Nation. 


By John T. Montgomery, Supervisor of Extension ffork 

Sales records from fourteen 
cattle-producing reservations offer 
an interesting study in comparisons. 
Prices varied greatly due to wide 
differences in weight and quality of 
the animals themselves and also to 
the method of selling in vogue at 
each particular jurisdiction. In 
general, northern cattle are larger 
and weigh more than the southwestern 
cattle. For example, Fort Hall, 
Idaho, yearlings averaged 681 pounds 
per head; Klamath, Oregon, 642; San 
Carlos, Arizona, 575; Mescal ero, New 
Mexico, 536; Fort Apache, Arizona, 
504; Truxton Canon, Arizona, 550.5; 
and the weights of other classes of 
cattle vary similarly. 

Due to demand for weighty 
animals most of the past year, heav- 
ier and older cattle have sold well. 
The exception was Fort Apache. There 
the yearlings outsold the twos and 
threes toy about one and two dollars 
per hundred weight, respectively. 
Similarly, heavy cows sold for less 
money at Fort Apache; fat cows averag- 
ing 849 pounds sold at $4.25 and the 
same class weighing 904 pounds sold on Fort Berthold, North Dakota, 
at $5.90; while on Klamath, 1,113-pound cows Drought $5.39 per hun- 
dred weight. 

Beef Round-Up At 
Mescalero, New Mexico. 

Methods of selling varied. In general, however, one of 
two methods is followed: Selling at auction to the highest bidder; 
and selling on sealed bids, usually to the highest bidder. A third 
method which is becoming increasingly popular is selling on the 
central live-stock markets of the country through commission firms. 

The principal objection to selling at home* has been that 
animals generally have been bought by speculators whose profits 



Selling Beef Cattle At Auction At One Of The Four Sales 
Held At Yakima, Washington, During 1937. 


-i i 



■ «fc 


Truxton Canon, Arizona. Twenty-Six Hundred Head of Indian 
Cattle Have Been Moved To Excellent Summer Range At 
Higher Elevation, Formerly Used By Lessees. 
Note The Pine Tree Altitude. 


might have teen saved to 
the Indians by more in- 
telligent selling. Anoth- 
er objection to home salea 
has been collusion among 
bidders and resale of cat- 
tle among themselves: this 
practice in some areas is 
quite general. These ob- 
jections to home selling 
apply to auctions and to 
sales by sealed bids, but 
less, perhaps, to open 

A Sales Ring At Fort Hall, Idaho 

On some jurisdictions it is the practice to sell on bids 
marked "All or none"; that is, acceptance of proposed prices for 
all the animals offered in the sale. Generally such bidders submit 
a good bid for one class of animals and very low bids on other 
classes, which means a low average bid when all classes are taken 
into consideration. Usually this is a very poor way of selling 
cattle and costs the seller many dollars. 

Selling at central markets, or "shipping", as it is gen- 
erally called, is popular or unpopular depending upon the market 
on the day of the sale. If the shipper sells on the high spot for 
the week or month, he is fairly well satisfied; if not, he is sure 
the market was manipulated to his damage. In general, selling on 
central markets at the season of demand for the classes of live- 
stock produced on Indian reservations is as satisfactory as any 

More money would be obtained for our cattle if they were 
sold directly to feeders, who finish cattle for eastern or western 
markets. In general, Indian cattle pass through too many hands 
between sale to slaughter: each handler must make a profit if he 
is to remain in business. 

The general tabulation on the following page indicates 
the general averages for the reservations named, but like all 
"average" figures, they mean little unless they are carefully 







1 ■ ' 
Total Value 



Of Lot 


Per Cwt. 

Per Head 

Of Lot 

Colorado River, Arizona- 






$ 4,397.00 

[Fort Apache, Arizona. 
Fort Berthold, N. D. 













Fort Berthold, N. D. 


339 , 600 





Fort Hall, Idaho. 







Flathead, Montana. 







Klamath, Oregon. 







Mescalero, New Mexico. 







San Carlos, Arizona. 







San Carlos, Arizona. 







Sells, Arizona. 







Sells, Arizona. 







Truxton Canon, Arizona. 







Uintah & Ouray, Utah. 







Warm Springs, Oregon. 







Wind River, Wyoming. 







Takima, Washington. 















Constitution Elections: 

Yes No 

February 8 Wichita Tribe of Oklahoma 26. • 133 

February 26 Kalispel, Washington (Northern Idaho).. 33... 

February 26 Colville, Washington (Non-IRA) 503... 76 

April 2" Skokomish, Washington (Taholah) 38... 27 

Charter Elections; 

February 28 

Pima-Maricopa (Arizona) 652.. 148 


The mark of quality and genuineness for Navajo and Pueblo 
silver, created last spring by the Indian Arts and Crafts Board, De- 
partment of the Interior, is now available for application upon such 
silver jewelry as meets the regulations set up by the Board. 

Those who are interested in obtaining the mark are in- 
vited to write to Mr. K. M. Chapman, Laboratory of Anthropology, 
Santa Fe, or at P. 0. Box 966, Gallup, New Mexico. 


By Alferd Smith, Secretary, Live-Stock Association 
Warm Springs Agency, Oregon 

Most of the fami- 
lies have been living up here 
on Miller Flat about ten years. 
We did not have hardly any 
cattle, mostly only horses. 
The winters are pretty cold 
and the snow gets awful deep. 
We all had a hard time try- 
ing to raise crops to feed 
our stock; we did not have 
very much land to raise crops 
on, and the feed was always 
short . When we moved up here , 
horses were everywhere and 

Roping A Wild Horse 

they were no good, so we decided that we had to do something about 
getting them off, so we could have more grass for our cattle and 
work horses. They were pretty hard to catch but we always catch 
some every year, then the ones that we miss always get harder to 
catch. Soon we don't have many left, and our grass is getting 
better all time. 

We talked about organizing stock association a long time 
and we had some meetings but we did not know how to organize so it 
would be any good. After Mr. Peal came, he told us all about how 
to organize and the things that we could do that would help all of 
us people. So we had some meetings to understand all about it. 
Then we write the by-laws and constitution; then elect officers. 
We got along good before we organized but we we found out we can 
do lot more now. 

We ask for irrigation and we are getting that. We bought 
a thresher mostly to thresh grain for seed; now we don't have to 
buy any seed except mostly alfalfa and things like that we have not 
been raising. We are going to buy some cattle when we get the loan 
money so all the people can live better. 

The Soil Conservation Service has built us a big corral 
so we can work our cattle easier, and they are going to build a fence 
for a bull pasture this spring. 









I1SO 1*1 •*»*• 1133 I93H I13S «»fc »<•»/ I1W 

We try to take care of our range the beat way we can. 
This year we put our cattle behind the drift fence and they done 
good up there. We want to buy some good mares and a stallion this 
spring so we can raise some good horses • 


New Mexico is planning a Coronado Cuarto Centennial Ex- 
position for 1940, the 400th anniversary of Coronado' s coming from 
Mexico to explore the Southwest . ■ Paul Satsewa, from Laguna, a 
student at the Albuquerque Indian School, drew a sketch for the 
school magazine, illustrating his idea of Coronado' s first sight 
of the village of Zuni . It so impressed members of the Centennial 
Commission that the drawing has been reproduced as a part of the 
Commission's advertising material on the coming event. 



"I am thinking of starting a crusade," writes one super- 
intendent's wife, "for putting superintendents' wives on a dollar- 
a-year salary, so they can legally ride with their husbands. I 
think it could be justified on the following grounds for pinch- 
hitting and stand-in services rendered: 

Per Year 

School programs , Indian $ .02 

School programs, public 03 

Funerals 10 

Musical recitals, white and Indian (rated same as funerals). .10 

Fairs - judging duties 05 

Garden club judging (hard work and loss of friends) 10 

Answering the door on holidays, washdays and Sundays for 

Indians and business callers 05 

Extra use of discretion, caution and bridling of the tongue 

(sometimes) 12 

Attending parties at clubs 02 

Attending Chamber of Commerce dinners in nearby towns 

(almost rank with funerals) 08 

Evening business and Indian callers (one has the choice of 

either listening or going to the kitchen or to bed) 10 

Waiting meals while someone talks to husband 'just a 

minute - you are so busy in the office ' 15 

Running what amounts to a hotel and rooming house (the pleas- 
ure of having some people overbalances inconvenience) ... .01 
Waiting meals, hours, while husband is stuck in mud on 

reservati on 01 

Visiting sick and afflicted (partly personal duty) 01 

Going out nights to wrecks involving Indians 01 

Helping get cows out of mud-holes on drives 01 

Remembering to deliver messages left while 

superintendent is away 01 

Going on long repetitious rides on reservation, especially 
in bad weather, rather than staying home wondering what 
shape the body will be in, if and when it is brought 
home 02 

$1 .00 " 



By G-eorge S. Kephart, Forest Supervisor 


■^ ''Our* • ^ "-sJL $**! 


— . MU 


: r M 

■ »~i.~-^ 

''■**<*-. '-.." -.* .»-' • -;•:'.'..:-• 

Left To Right: Charles S. Hood, C. M. Kirk, James Johnson, 
S. E. Kirk (Chairman), Luke Chester, Boyd J. Jackson (Secretary), 
Carthon R. Patrie, J. L. Kirk, Ben J. Mitchell, Levi Walker. 

In a dingy ex-school room at Klamath Agency in Oreeon, 
furnished with discarded chairs and heated by a temperamental 
kitchen range, nine Indians decided questions last December for 
their tribe which concerned the future sales of timber worth some 
fifteen million dollars. These nine formed a special Timber Com- 
mittee, charged by the General Council with the task of determin- 
ing whether economic conditions were improved sufficiently to war- 
rant an increase in the prices being paid, under contract, for 
Klamath Reservation timber. They were charged also with the task 
of drawing up a new form of timber sale contract to be used on all 
future sales of timber. 


I looked forward to the meeting with particular interest. 
"There is meat enough in these problems," I said to myself, "for a 
Wall Street board of directors and a staff of clerks and lawyers." 
The situation was complicated, moreover, by a prolonged degression 
in the lumber industry. 

The meetings began with the election of Selden Kirk aa 
chairman, Boyd Jackson as secretary and Ben Mitchell as reading 
clerk. Others of the committee were Luke Chester, Charles Hood, 
James Johnson, Clayton Kirk, J. L. Kirk and Levi Walker. Carthon 
Patrie, Forester, and Frank B. Lenzie, Regional Forester, represen- 
ted the Indian Service's Forestry and Grazing Division, while Su- 
perintendent Bert Courtright and the writer appeared for the Agency. 
During sixteen wearing days of meetings, this committee kept faith- 
fully to the work at hand. 

Once there was a momentary flare-up, when a ruling of The 
chair was questioned. All parties, however, made the concessions 
necessary to clear the air quickly. Personal bias was not allowed 
to interfere with the smooth conduct of business. 

In preparation for the meetings an excellent report on 
the trend of economic conditions as affecting timber had been pre- 
pared by the Regional Office. In the discussion of this report I 
really began to appreciate the caliber of the committee members. 
The subject- matter covered a broad field. In surveying it some 
angles could be defined by facts and figures beyond all dispute. 
Others were general and open to disagreement, even among special- 
ists. The truth of some facts had to be accepted on the word of 
experts, in the same way that most of us accept the fact that the 
world is round. There were statistics, reviews of market condi- 
tions, studies of trends and similar highly complicated matters. 
The committee dug down through it all, searching carefully for an 
answer to the question, "Have economic conditions improved to the 
point that we are justified in asking for an increase in stumpage 
prices?" A less capable committee would have jumped blindly at 
this chance to increase tribal income, without any desire to un- 
derstand the reasons back of its decision. 

After this review of the report a series of conferences 
was arranged with representatives of each of the seven contracting 
companies. During these meetings there was ample opportunity for 
misunderstandings and the promotion of hard feeling generally, but 
in spite of the bewildering array of evidence, the committee held 
firmly and politely to the fundamentals. The Regional Off-ice re- 
port showed that conditions were much improved during the first part 
of the year (when the report was prepared) and that stumpage 'in- 
creases were warranted. The committee found this to be true. It 
found equal truth in the contractors' evidence that a recession of 


serious proportions had occurred later in the year. It considered 
the fact that no increases would be imposed legally for another 
two months, and realized that conditions might be either decidedly 
better or worse at that time. Very wisely, it would seem, the com- 
mittee recommended to a General Council that the Klamath Indians 
give the Indian Office a free hand to impose such increases, or no 
increase at all, as should appear proper when the time for final 
action arrived. In view of the continued recession we can imagine 
how welcome this recommendation, and its adoption, was to Indian 
Office representatives. 

In odd moments during these sixteen busy days, two other 
things were accomplished. An existing form of timber sale contract 
was so objectionable that several companies had refused to bid 
under its terms. A new form of contract was therefore drafted by 
the committee. This protects the Indians' interests and appears 
acceptable to the lumbermen. 

These sixteen days of meetings are remembered with real 
pleasure. They began in a cheerless, uninspiring old room that 
would dampen the ardor of the most optimistic- Aptly enough, on 
the last day we moved across the hall to a remodeled and freshly 
painted Tribal Committee room. 

I recall a report submitted to the Commissioner of Indian 
Affairs in 1871 by J. N. High, Sub-Agent at Klamath Agency. High 

« The completion of a new sawmill has worked a 

great reformation and inspired them to great exertion to amass 

various kinds of property Savage in skins, paint and feathers, 

as they were two short years since, they have donned the white man's 
costume, taken the ax, cross-cut saw, and hauled to the mill a half 
million feet of lumber and, today, are lumber merchants with stock 
in trade constantly on hand, evincing shrewdness and business in- 
tegrity that makes an agent 's heart strong to work with and for them 

In two short generations the Klamaths have adapted them- 
selves to a new civilization. It would be foolish to think that 
every Indian on the Klamath Reservation was then, or is now, a para- 
gon, just as it would be supremely foolish to assume that every 
white man is entitled to wear a halo. There have been stormy tines 
at Klamath. But I think that incidents like the timber committee 
meetings are evidence that a large- number of these Indians, are do- 
ing productive straight thinking and have made a long forward step 
along the path of self-government. 



An Indian Service field worker, who prefers to remain 
anonymous, makes the following contribution, which he dedicates to 
the Washington Office personnel. 

A field engineer named Charlie McCoffus 

Worked all day in the field and all night in the office 

Checking contracts and vouchers and estimates too, 

To he picked all to bits by the Washington crew. 

For the boys in D. C., in their double-lensed specs 
Their sallow complexions and fried collar necks, 
Care not for the time nor the money they waste, 
If a carbon is missing, a comma misplaced, 
They bounce back the paper with ill-concealed jeers 
To harass the hard-working field engineers. 

To get back to Charlie, he struggled along 

'Till an ache in his head told him something was wrong, 

He went to the doctor, and "Doctor, said he, 

There's a buzz in my brain, what's the matter with me?" 

Well, the medico thumped, as medicos do, 

And he tested his pulse and his reflexes too, 

And his head and his heart and his throat and each lung 

And Charlie said "Ah", and he stuck out his tongue. 

When the doctor said, "Wow, what a narrow escape, 

But a brief operation will put you in shape." 

"Your brain's overworked like a motor run down, 

Ard you're flirting with death every time you turn 'round, 
I must take out your brain for a complete overhauling, 
In the interim, take a respite from your calling." 

So Charlie McCoffus went under the knife, 

He struggled home brainless and kissed his own wife, 

Ihile old Doctor Loomis and two other men, 

Were putting his brain in order again. 

Well, the weeks rolled along and Charlie McCoffus 

Never called for his brain at the medico's office." 

The Doctor got worried, gave Charlie a ring, said 
"You'd better come over and get the darned thing." 
"Thanks, Doc, I don't need it," said Charlie McCoffus, 
"I've just been transferred to the Washington Office." 

So Charlie now wears a fried collar to work 
And he hides in the lairs where the auditors lurk, 
And his letters bring tremors of anger and fear 
To the head of each hard-working field engineer 
And the pride and the joy of the Washington Office 
Is brainless, predacious, young Charlie McCoffus. 



Secretary of the Interior Harold L. Ickes has issued in- 
structions for the holding of a referendum by the Indians of the 
Consolidated Chippewa Jurisdiction of Minnesota, upon the subject 
of the permanent location of the administrative headquarters of the 
jurisdiction. Chester E. Paris, Senior Field Representative of the 
Commissioner of Indian Affairs, was placed in charge of the refer- 
endum conducted under the departmental policy of consulting Indians 
on Indian affairs. 

Secretary Ickes wrote to Mr. FaTis: 

"The election should be preceded 
by ten days notice, and should be held, if 
possible, within three weeks of the date 
of this instruction." 

Mr. Paris was directed to proceed in cooperation with 
Superintendent Balsam of the Consolidated Chippewa Jurisdiction and 
with the Executive Committee of the Tribe. 

The places to be voted at the referendum are Bemidji, 
Cass Lake, Duluth, Grand Rapids, Minneapolis and a location within 
the flhite Earth Reservation. The Executive Committee of the Tribe 
is authorized to add additional place names to the ballot, and a 
space will be provided upon the ballot for the writing in by voters 
of any location not named in the ballot. 

Secretary Ickes stated: "Seventeen days ago, the gov- 
ernment's records at the Cass Lake Indian Agency were seized by a 
crowd of local Indians, openly incited by white persons resident at 
Cass Lake. For more than two weeks, this illegal seizure and con- 
cealment of government files and property has continued. The sit- 
uation is an intolerable one and should be brought to an end. I 
have referred the case to the Attorney General for appropriate 
criminal or civil action, in the event that the lawless actions by 
the local citizenry are kept up. The referendum among the Indians 
will decide where the Agency shall be located permanently. In the 
meantime, the administrative headquarters is Duluth, and there the 
government's records should be deposited." 




By A. C. Monahan, Regional Coordinator for Oklahoma 

The vast national 
plan for a shelterbelt - a man- 
planted strip of woodland ex- 
tending down through the Great 
Plains area from the Canadian 
line to Texas, which will help 
to save soil hy lessening wind 
erosion - is moving toward re- 
alization: 2,606 miles of 
plantings have been made since 
1935 in six states; 6,500 acres 
of groves have been planted on 
individual farms; and the 
planting schedule for this 
year calls for 4,300 miles 
more of plantings. Applica- 
tions from farmers for plant- 
ing stock already exceed avail- 
able supplies. 

Indian Service work- 
ers in Oklahoma and Kansas are 
sharing in this immense proj- 
ect in cooperation with the 
U. S. Forest Service. The For- 
est Service began the actual 
planting of shelterbelts in 
Western Oklahoma early in 1935. 
Cottonwood seedlings set out 
that year are now over twenty 
feet in height. Locust, Chi- 
nese elm, desert willow, tama- 

Black Locust And Chinese JBlm Howe 
Planted Near Mangum, Oklahoma, In 
April 1935. (Picture Taken 
September 1937 . ) 

risk and other stock have made proportional growth. 

The belts are planted on privately-owned land under agree- 
ments with the landowners. The Forest Service prepares the soil, 
sets out the seedlings and supervises their care for a two or three- 
year period. The landowner agrees to carry on the necessary culti- 
vation after the planting and to protect the young trees and shrubs 
from damage. In return he has not only protection from wind ero- 
sion, but will have firewood and fence posts after there is growth 
enough to warrant cutting out surplus stock. The standard shelter- 
belt is seven rods in width and is planted with ten rows of seedlings 
The high-growing stock is set in the center rows. 


Indian Service cooperation was arranged early in 1937. 
The Forest Service agreed to furnish the Indian Service with 100,- 
000 seedlings from its nursery stock at Elk City and elsewhere, 
and to give advice and necessary instruction on plantings. The 
Indian Service, through its CCC-Indian Division, planted this stock 
in shelter belts on federally owned land at Indian agencies, schools, 
hospitals and other centers. 

The success of this first work warranted its continua- 
tion, and similar plans were developed for work during the current 
season, mostly on individurlly owned Indian lands held in trust by 

A Picture Of A Shelterbelt Taken In July 1935. 

the Government. The landowners enter into agreements with the Gov- 
ernment similar to those of white landowners with the United States 
Forest Service. The Forest Service is furnishing the seedlings 
and the full-time service of three foresters to pass upon soils 
where plantings are being considered, and to supervise the prepar- 
ation of the soil and the plantings. The labor of preparing the 
soil and setting the plantings is carried out by CCC-ID men work- 
ing under Indian Service foremen. 

The original plant quota assigned to the Indian project 
was fifty miles of basic seven-rod shelterbelt, fifteen miles of 
three-row intermediate belts and thirty acres of farmsteads or wood- 
lots. The demand for this type of planting is greater than antici- 
pated, and by April first approximately one hundred miles of shelter- 
belt plantings were completed. Thirty miles of these are in the 
Canton section in the Cheyenne and Arapaho Jurisdiction; the re- 
mainder is near Mountain View and Carnegie in the Kiowa Jurisdic- 

The United States Forest Supervisor states that the In- 
dian crews who have been trained in planting are doing an excellent 
job. He says he "would match the Indians against any crew in the 


As a direct result of the planting program on Indian land 
a great deal of interest in shelterbelt planting has been aroused 
among white landowners. This has resulted in the Carnegie section 
alone in applications for some thirty miles of planting adjacent 
to the work being done on Indian lands. The United States Forest 
Service is accepting these applications, since it is most desirable 

Picture Of Same Shelterbelt (See Opposite Page) 
Taken In August 1937 • 

to complete the work in a given area as far as possible for the 
benefit of the community as a whole. Mr. John R. Nelson, State 
Director of the shelterbelt work for the United States Forest Serv- 
ice, says "It now appears that the Carnegie Area will develop into 
one of the best concentrations of plantings in "the State insofar as 
desirable location of belts and obtaining maximum benefit from the 
planting are concerned, since this area apparently will have be- 
tween seventy and eighty miles of windbreaks located in a compara- 
tively compact group. It is anticipated that eighty per cent of 
these belts will be planted on Indian lands." 

A similar project is under way on the Potawatomi Juris- 
diction in Kansas. The cooperative arrangement there is between 
Superintendent H. JS. Bruce and his staff and the Kansas Shelter- 
belt U. S. Forest Service Office. This Potawatomi Area is consider- 
ably east of the general area in which the Forest Service is work- 
ing, but it is country which needs shelterbelts and the Forest 
Service feels that a successful demonstration on Indian land will 
prove the value of such work to white farmers in the general vici- 

Illustrations accompanying this article show the results 
of 1935 plantings in Oklahoma by the United States Forest Service 
and in 1937 by both the Forest Service and the Indian Service. 


By Henry Roe Cloud 

One who wishes to attend a most entertaining and illuminat- 
ing meeting should arrange to he present at an Oneida Council. Here 
is an aggressive, intelligent and wide-awake group of Indians. Dis- 
cussions keep to the point, whether they have to do with the science 
of government, with social organization, economic foundations, or 
land matters. These Indians are doing the thinking for themselves 
and their governing concepts are those of the community in general. 

At this particular meeting — March 11— the Oneida Council 
met at Oneida, Wisconsin, with Mr. PeruFarver, Superintendent of 
the Tomah Agency, Archie Phinney, Indian Reorganization Agent for 
the Great Lakes Area and myself. Charter and land matters were 
discussed in detail. 

Archie Phinney threw the responsibility for the final 
shaping of the Oneidas' ordinance on membership on their own shoul- 
ders, offering only a suggestive framework for their discussion. 
This question of membership is a real problem for this group, where 
they have an absentee list of about 1600. The discussion led into 
many phases of the problem, such as the extension of credit, non- 
Indian persons, blood quantum, disposition of local cooperative 
profits, effect of actions on Buffalo Creek Treaty of 1838 and the 
like. The whole question of membership was postponed for further 
study and report, but unanimous action was taken to eliminate from 
membership the intermarried white man. 

If anyone lacks faith in or distrusts Indian leadership, 
let him take a trip to Oneida and see for himself the creative ac- 
tivity of this people and their array of solid accomplishments. 
They are working together and individual ambitions are being sub- 
ordinated to the principle of the greatest good to the greatest 
number . 


"As calm as the passing of winter this year, death 
claimed Little Soldier, aged veteran of war days of the Sioux. At 
the age of thirteen years, Little Soldier rode into the Custer 
fight to get one of the 7th Cavalry horses. That was sixty-two 
years ago, so Little Soldier was 75. He died Sunday, March 13." 

From the Sioux County Pioneer Arrow , March 18 . 


Books, Magazines, And The Pictures That Move And Talk Come 

To The Desert Indians 

The Book Truck 

The Book Truck In Process 
Of Being Shelved. 

The hook truck pictured here is the lihrary for a vast 
area of Southern Arizona Indian country: Pima, Papago, San Carlos, 
Port Apache, Walapai and Colorado River. 

The arrival of the hook truck at an Indian Service school 
means far more than hooks for the children. It means hooks for 
adults as well. It also means magazines, newspapers, maps, victrola 
records, mounted pictures and classroom exhihits to aid teachers. 

And it means movies. Indian parents and children hring 
their suppers to school, eat and talk in the open shelter on the 
school grounds and then go inside to sit in the gathering dark while 
"Mr. Bookman" - Pierrepont Alford - hrings in the portahle motion 
picture machine and connects it with the electric generator which 
is run hy the hook truck's motor (there is no electricity at many 
of the Southern Arizona day schools). 

Indians of all ages delightedly witness, some of them for 
the first time, the pictures that move and talk. A typical program 
would he a demonstration of the methods hy which various crops may 
he irrigated; a Mickey Mouse reel; and a picture hased on the life 
of Louis Pasteur. 




Halfway around the world, and, from our point of view, 
at the bottom of it, lies Southern Rhodesia. Americans, when they 
think of it at all, picture a vast, unsettled area, free from the 
problems brought by the pressure of people upon land. As a matter 
of fact, according to Douglas Aylen, Soil Conservation Assistant 
for the Southern Rhodesian Government, who was a recent visitor at 
the Washington Office, Southern Rhodesia is struggling against some 
of the same problems of soil erosion and overgrazing with which the 
Indian Service and other government agencies are contending in Our 


own Southwest. Mr. Aylen's story of their problems are made such 
rich listening that we pass on to our readers some of the impressions 
he left during his brief visit. Strong parallels and equally strong 
contrasts with our own problems come constantly to mind as the story 

Southern Rhodesia, which is a British self-governing colony, 
has a population of nearly 60,000 whites and some 2,000,000 natives, 
who are mostly of the Matabele (Zulu) and Chisohna native African 
stocks. This land of some 150,344 square miles, is a young country, 
since settlement by whites in large numbers did not begin until the 
1890' 8. Its early history was one of exploitation and large land 
grants to the venturesome whites who got there first. The Matabele, 
who had enslaved most of the other natives, were at first friendly 
to the newcomers; as their numbers and their pressure increased, how- 
ever, the natives rose against them. The colonists put down the up- 
rising and freed the enslaved natives. After massacres and reprisals, 
peaceful relations were achieved by about 1900 and permanent reserves 
set aside for the natives. 

The economy of Southern Rhodesia is a combination of farm- 
ing (tobacco and corn are cash crops on the better land), stock 
raising and small mining operations. White-owned farms are large: 
perhaps two thousand acres, with seven to eight hundred acres of 
arable land, worked by a white man who may employ from twenty to a 
hundred natives. Stock ranches range from ten to forty thousand 
acres; such an enterprise would be staffed by one or two whites who 
direct a large number of native workers. The ratio of twenty acres 
per head for cattle would seem to approximate conditions on much of 
our own western range. 

Rhodesia is a country of large areas of poor soil and 
small areas of very good soil. Rainfall, which comes in sudden, 
heavy bursts - as much as three inches in an hour - varies from 
twelve to fifteen inches a year in some parts, to twenty-five to 
thirty in others. The climate is mild, with light frosts in winter 
and summer temperatures in the hotter areas up to 100 degrees. 

There is a lack of mineral salts in the soil and the 
temperature of the soil is high; these two phenomena are of vital 
importance, since they act as a deterrent to the accumulation of 
humus in the soil- The light soil, the dryness, the sudden, heavy 
rains, and the lack of humus - these are all factors which of them- 
selves offer hazard to the soil; in addition, there are powerful 
human factors which complicate and deepen the problem. 


As in this country, changing admini strati ve policies 
have changed the natives' ways of life, and these shifts have af- 
fected the land itself. Unlike this country, however, the vast ex- 
preponderance of natives over whites has made the natives' use of 
the land a major problem. The Native Department of the government 
is the largest unit in the entire scheme of government and the na- 
tives' use of their soil is a major concern of its workers. 

Formerly, Rhodesian natives cultivated small patches of 
soil in a somewhat casual fashion, raising mixtures of their native 
crops - kaffir corn, millet, a variety of peanut and pumpkins. They 
did little weeding and little clearing and they operated largely 
on a communal basis • Seeking to build up the country's exports, 
the government encouraged the natives to plow, to farm methodical- 
ly and to grow crops for market, as much, for example, as ten acres 
of corn apiece. Natives cut or ring-barked trees and cleared or 
burned over land. Native crops were marketed, along with whites', 
through farmers 1 cooperative societies. 

At first few thought of the soil itself, of giving the 
land a rest, of the effects of native customs on their farming and 
grazing methods, and of their effect, in turn, upon the soil. 

The native attitude toward cattle is an example of the 
far-reaching effect of tribal customs. Native prestige has been 
and still is, Mr. Aylen explained, measured in terms of cattle. 
The more cattle a man has, the more he can present to his future 
parents-in-law and the handsomer and more capable wife he is able to 
acquire; with still more cattle, he can acquire another wife; and 
so on. And it is not the quality of the cattle which counts, but 
the number: five scrub animals, which may be worth far less than 
one good one on the open market, are five times as valuable as one 
cow in terms of prestige and wife-buying. Cattle, therefore, are 
raised by the natives in as large numbers and with as little trouble 
as possible. They are herded close to the kraals and mostly cared 
for by the children, and are customarily turned into fields that 
have already become too unproductive to farm, to forage what they 
can and to contribute to the ravage of the depleted ground cover. 

As a result of this, cattle are weak, and when droughts 
come, losses are distressingly heavy - up to sixty per cent. Tick- 
borne cattle diseases are so prevalent that cattle must be dipped 
once a week; this weekly concentration at the vats (dip tanks) of 
large numbers of stock further denudes the soil in the vat areas. 
The government made an effort some time ago to improve the native 
strain by importing pedigreed, but unacclimated bulls, with disap- 
pointing results. 


What, then, is the Rhodesian Government doing? One 
remedy is obvious and is being applied: that of developing suo- 
plementary water holes and reservoirs, to spread the live-stock 
and lighten the load on the previously watered areas. The main 
task, Mr. Aylen emphasized, is one of education: to convince 
natives and whites alike, but principally natives, since there are 
so many more of them, of the urgency of cutting down on the number 
of their cattle and of the wisdom of concentrating their efforts 
on fewer and more productive stock; of driving home the hard fact 
that one good animal eats a fraction of what four or five scrubs 
eat and is worth as much or more; that grass and soil are not ever- 
lasting gifts of providence but are resources which can be mined 
to exhaustion. 

It is not a program which can be accomplished overnight. 
Immediate insistence upon changes so powerfully opposed to tradi- 
tional values would cause an upheaval in native affairs. By ex- 
ample, by education and by finding profitable uses for scrub animals, 
the Ehodesian Conservation Department is seeking to meet this prob- 
lem of salvaging Rhodesia's badly eroded areas. Some of the excess 
animals can be sold for fertilizer; some of the better ones are 
used in manufacturing beef extract; and training in the preparation 
and use of hides has been a further incentive to cut down on useless 

Opposition has come from whites as well. "Why should I 
pay taxes," say some of the less able white farmers, "to teach the 
natives how to improve their land and thus better to compete with 
me?" The more progressive whites, however, see the native problem 
as inextricably bound up with the welfare of Southern Rhodesia as 
a whole; see that a depleted land means first a weakened, and then 
a starving population, thrown upon the rest of the country to sup- 
port. As a matter of fact, the program is only partially financed 
by white taxpayers, since all adult natives pay a tax of a pound 
a head a year to the Southern Rhodesian Government. 

Facts gleaned hastily from Mr. Aylen on native administra- 
tion are interesting. Native reserves are inviolate: no whites, 
not even superintendents, live on them, with the sole exception of 
the cattle inspectors. In general, the natives are a subject people, 
without representation or vote, and marriage between whites and na- 
tives is prohibited. In local matters, however, their own tribal 
governments and customs have the weight of law: the authority of 
their head men is recognized, and law and order problems, except 
for grave offenses such as murder, are settled by tribal law. 
Criminal cases come before a white magistrate. These commissioners, 


or magistrates, must, in addition to a sound academic foundation, 
have a thorough knowledge of native law, customs and languages, 
as well as English law. There is a native constabulary, which'is 
supplemented by a white police force, a representative of which 
visits each native village once a month. The commissioners also 
make the rounds of the reserves, reaching each one about once 
every three months. 

The liquor problem is dealt with in both positive and 
negative directions: Hotels bordering on native reserves cannot 
be licensed to sell liquor, even to whites. Natives may brew their 
own beer on their reserves; when off their own areas, as on a white- 
owned farm, for instance, they are limited legally to possession 
of four gallons per household at any one time. 

With the exception of one government training school, in 
which natives pay a small tuition, native education is in the hands 
of various mission groups. From the government's point of view, 
Mr. Aylen said, some of the American missions were the most success- 
ful, because they supplemented religious teaching with training in 
handicrafts and agricultural methods. 

Health measures, such as compulsory vaccination, free 
clinics, and medical treatments, have been carefully developed by 
the government. As a result, the native population is increasing 
in numbers . 

In general the government's objective in dealing with 
its native peoples is to promote high standards of character, and 
ability and opportunity for self-support. In pre-settlement days, 
the native code of ethics required strict integrity of behavior; 
stealing, for example, was unknown' Native standards broke down, 
however, with the influx of pioneers of mixed backgrounds and 
character forty-odd. years ago. Swift changes brought by whites have 
raised problems in native life which present-day government and mis- 
sion workers are trying to solve. 

The soil erosion problem in Southern Rhodesia is so press- 
ing, according to Mr. Aylen, that, with the very modest budget avail- 
able for government action, the only chance for solution is through 
education and propaganda measures designed to awaken natives and 
whites alike to the seriousness of the danger facing them. Begin- 
nings have been made in training natives at the government school; 
an educational bulletin is issued and distributed; and a number of 
the native commissioners and missionaries are keenly alive to this 
peril to Rhodesia's resources. 



Newspaper clippings about Indians and Indian Service ac- 
tivities come to the Office of Indian Affairs in large numbers. 
Readers of "Indians At Work" may "be interested in an occasional 
cross-section of newspaper comment on Indians. 

From The Alaska Weekly . 

Ten thousand dollars' worth of native products have been 
sold throughout Alaska during the past four months by the Bureau 
of Indian Affairs, since it started a marketing program to aid the 
natives. Virgil R. Farrell, Indian Service emnloyee whose business 
it is to find markets and take orders for the parkas, mukluks, moc- 
casins, baskets and ivory said he found a ready response to the 
program . 

"Since last October we have delivered $10,000 worth of 
native products to dealers in Alaska. The money has been paid to 
the natives who make the goods and we are now taking in more 
orders," Mr. Farrell said. 

From The Spokane Daily Chronicle , Spokane , Washington . 

Local artists are interested in the second summer state 
college art colony being arranged for artists, teachers and students 
Classes will be held on the Indian reservation at Nespelem, under 
the direction of Worth D. Griffin, Head of the Department of Fine 
Arts of Washington State College. 

The purpose of the colony is to study "America's Last 
Frontier", to give a vital record and vivid interpretive art. Three 
days a week from June 18 to August 19, the group will paint from In- 
dian models and the three alternate days will be devoted to crea- 
tive landscape painting and composition. 

From The Missoulian , Missoula , Montana . 

The Indians are coming.' In fact they 're* here . Three 
Montana State University students legitimately claim not only good 
campus records but also distinguished family trees going back to 
some of the first citizens of the state. 

Joseph Larry Parker is a great-grandson of Chief Joseph, 
famous leader of the Nez Perce Tribe, while Archie and Margaret 
Erin McDonald, brother and sister, are grandchildren of Angus Mc- 
Donald, Hudson Bay factor, who came to Montana in 1339 • 

( Note : Parker and McDonald are receiving educational 
loans from the Office of Indian Affairs.) 


. to 

1 ^ 

co _. 

cd § 


» . 


CD i? 
CO " 

w s 



klb„ :*# 


„o CD 

C *> 

S> - 

• u 
a o 




ri o 

•H +» 

,3 O 

to j3 

m * 

CO ^^» 


















More than 7,000 Indians enrolled in the Civilian Conserva- 
tion Corps, Indian Division, joined with many other Indians and with 
white neighbors in a national observance of the fifth anniversary 
of the Corps, on April 5. 

Indians of seventy reservations in twenty-three states 
participated in field day events, ceremonials and other observances 
of this anniversary which has become so significant in the nation- 
wide effort to rehabilitate the Indian population on a self-sustain- 
ing basis. Indian leaders invited the public to inspect not only 
their work camps, but the work projects themselves. In this way the 
Indians demonstrated the progress they have already made in the gi- 
gantic task of rebuilding Indian assets and showed also the heavy- 
tasks that lie ahead of them. 

Over 13.000,000 Calendar Days Of Work 

Since 1933 more than 50,000 Indians have participated in 
Indian emergency work and Indians have worked more than 13,000,000 
calendar days. The average total daily number of enrolled men on 
the pay roll has been approximately 8,400. At present, enrollment 
totals 7,665 on seventy reservations in twenty-three states- 

While one of the main objects of the CCC-ID program is to 
provide employment as well as vocational training to those in need 
of employment through performance of useful reservation work, Com- 
missioner Collier pointed out that an equally important result has 
been the improvement in the morale of the Indians and "an inestimable 
increase in the value of the reservations." 

Indians have been given preference in supervisory posi- 
tions, when qualified. The employment record for skilled and super- 
vising positions shows 540 Indians as against 435 whites for the 
four-year period ending July 1, 1937. The Indians are paid the 
same wages that white enrollees receive, but on most reservations 
"family camps" have been established. Reservation staffs, working 
with the enrollees and their families, have helped these groups in 
their social, sanitation and health problems. 

Among the major Indian reservation activities undertaken 
during the last four years are water development and the prevention 


of soil erosion. More than 6,000 springs, reservoirs and wells 
have "been developed; and 50,475 temporary and 16,402 permanent 
erosion -control check dams have been built. 

The Indians have constructed more than 5,600 miles of 
telephone lines for fire protection purposes, 2,300 miles of fire- 
breaks, 6,500 miles of truck trails, 2,000 miles of horse trails, 
900 bridges and more than 8,000 miles of fences. CCC-ID workers 
have also constructed more than 900 impounding and large diversion 
dams. Insect and pest control measures have been taken by the In- 
dians on approximately 100,000 acres of their lands. Among the 
most important work has been the round-up and elimination of more 
than 200,000 head of non-productive range stock, bringing many 
areas down to proper stock carrying capacity, thus making room 
for productive stock and at the same time conserving the range and 
the soil. 

Commissioner Collier said that training on the job has 
been emphasized and that many Indians have acquired sufficient 
skill in the trades to compete on an equal basis with the white 
man, if he chooses to leave his reservation. The training Indian*, 
have received in developing and conserving their land for agricul- 
tural and grazing purposes is helping them "to make the most of 
what th'ey have" , the Commissioner said. 


The December issue of "Indians At Work" 
carried an article entitled "A Word About Cooper- 
ation" by Edward Huberman in which the illustra- 
tion shown at the left appeared. 

The statement accrediting the illustra- 
tion to The Cooperative League was erroneous, 
since the chart was lent through the courtesy of 
the Consumers Mail Order Cooperative, Inc., 125 
West Thirty-thira Street, New York, N. Y. 


Flsndreau CCC-ID men's educational activities have in- 
cluded varied techniques - from learning to cut meat, instruction Id 
masonry, carpentry, blacksmi thing and tool repair, to training in 
clerical work and office procedure. The men spend two afternoons 
a week on this training work. 


By Eva L. Butler 

There axe a number of references to Indians at work in 
our old state and town records in Connecticut, from which I have 
been gathering material. Winthrop wrote in 1668 that he had lately 
caused a "new bridge to be built by an Indian very expert in such 
structures - this being the first they have attempted since the 
Deluge" at Hartford. Joshua Hempsted wrote about going to Niantic 
to have Indians "bottom" chairs and they were also frequently em- 
ployed as farmers, whalemen, servants, makers of tar and charcoal 
and so forth. 

Here is one letter which we had mimeographed for use in 
our Groton schools: 

To the Most Honorable Assembly of the State of Connecticut 
Conv'd at Hartford May 14, 1789. 

Tour Good old Steady Friends and Bretnern the Mohegan 
Tribe of Indians Sendeth Greeting: 

We beg Leave to lay our Concerns and Burdens at 
Your Excellencies Feet. The Times are Exceedingly Alter' d, 
Yea the Times have turn'd everything Upside down, or rath- 
er we have Chang 1 d the good Times, Chiefly by the help of 
the White People. For in Times past our Fore-Fathers lived 
in Peace, Love and great harmony, and had everything in 
Great planty. When they Wanted meat they would just run 
into the Bush a little ways with their Weapons and would 
Soon bring home good venison, Racoon, Bear and Fowl. If 
they Choose to have Fish, they Wo'd only go to the River 
or along the Sea Shore and they Wou'd presently fill 
their Canoous With Veriety of Fish, Both Scaled and shell 
Fish, and they had abundance of Nuts, Wild Fruit, Ground 
Nuts and Ground Beans, and they planted but little Corn 
and Beans and they kept no Cattle or Horses for they 
needed none - And they had no Contention about their lands, 
it lay in Common to them all, and they had but one large 
dish and they Cou'd all eat together in Peace and Love - 
But alas, it is not so now, all our Fishing, Hunting and 
Fowling is entirely gone, And we have now begun to Work 
on our Land, keep Cattle, Horses and Hogs And We Build 


Houses and fence in Lots, And now we plainly See that 
one Dish and one Fire will not do any longer for us - 
Some few there are Stronger than others and they will 
keep off the poor, weake, the halt and the Blind, And 
Will take the Dish to themselves. Yea, they will rath- 
er Call White People and Molattoes to eat With them out 
of our Dish, and poor Widows and Orphans Must be pushed 
one side and there they Must Set a Craying, Starving 
and die. 

And so We are now Come to our Good Brethern of the 
Assembly With Hearts full of Sorrow and Grief for Im- 
mediate help - And therefore our most humble and Earnest 
Bequest and Petition is That our Dish of Suckuttush may 
be equally divided amongst us, that every one may hav" 
his own little dish by himself, that he may eat Quietly 
and do With his Dish as he pleases; and let every one 
have his own Fire. 

Your Excellencies Compliance and Assistance at 
This Time will make our poor hearts very Glad and thank- 

This is the most humble Request and Petition of 
Your True Friend & Brethern Mohegan Indians, 

By the Hands of our Brothers 

Harry >^ Quaquaquid, his mark 
Robert Ashpo. 


Alexander Lawrence Posey, Creek Indian and poet, who was 
drowned in 1908 at the age of thirty-five, was honored recently by a 
bronze memorial tablet which was dedicated to his memory by the 
Da-Co-Tah Club of Muskogee, Oklahoma and placed in the Muskogee 
Public Library. Friends and admirers of the poet, among them Grant 
Foreman, historian, and Dr. B. D. Weeks of Bacone College, where Posey 
had been a student, paid tribute to this Oklahoma Indian whose verse 
still lives. By Miss Margaret La Hav , Cherokee Indian . 

Cover Design : The picture on the cover of this issue of 
"Indians At Work" shows a group of CCC-ID enrollees constructing 
an irrigation system on the Lukachukai project, Navajo Reservation, 



Work On Truck Trail At Fort 
Totten ( North Dakota T Gravelling of 
Horse-Shoe Lake Truck Trail is the 
major project at this Agency now. 
The trails are all being gone over 
with the caterpillar and blade to 
straighten up ruts, clean out cul- 
verts and repair other damages done 
by the spring thaws . 

We have been surveying trails 
leading to, in and around the camp 
ground situated near Wood Lake. As 
soon as truck trail maintenance work 
is completed we will take our heavy 
equipment consisting of caterpillar 
and blade to construct the necessary 
trails. Christian A. Huber . 

Improvement Of Grounds At The 
Phoenix Sanatorium ( Arizona ) The 
work continues to progress satisfac- 
torily. The setting out of 115 
shrubs and plants required the great- 
er portion of the week. It was nec- 
essary to irrigate well all shrubs 
and plants set by pumping water from 
the Grand Canal which forms the west 
boundary of the sanatorium grounds. 
Joseph T. Jenkins . 

Report From Faiute ( Utah ) Work 
continued through the week on Proj- 
ect 66A. Excavation of sand stone 
was completed and the remainder of 
the time was spent on smoothing up 
sides of the tank. This work is 
very slow and takes time. Ten loads 
of gravel were hauled for cement 
work on this project. P. B. Church . 

Work On Spillway At Chllocco 
School ( Oklahoma ) Concrete work was 

completed this week on the large 
spillway. The forms were removed 
and taken apart. Dirt work will 
start next week to connect the spill- 
way to the dam. This project will 
be fully completed next week. 

Plowing and harrowing was com- 
pleted in the thirty-eight acre 
field. Seeding and sodding will com- 
plete this project. Achan Pappan . 

Work On Boundary Fence At Rocky 
Boy's (Montana) Three large crews 
have been working on the boundary 
fence this week. Since most of the 
frost is out of the ground we have 
gone over most of the new fence and 
retamped the posts. This project 
is now completed and all ends of 
posts and any old broken pieces of 
wire have been gathered up. 

Cur crew on Fire Hazard Reduc- 
tion have completed the work for 
Project 113, and we have also cleaned 
the snow off some of the posts that 
had been covered. William W. Hyde . 

Truck Trail Work At Seminole 
( Florida ) The pond which was 90 per 
cent completed during the previous 
week was completed this week, making 
it possible to construct the grade 
where the pond was filled. 3/4 of 
a mile of right-of-way was cleared 
through hummock land where the grade 
will be later constructed. 192 yards 
of rock was hauled and placed on 
the grade for surfacing material. 
This 192 yards surfaced 675 feet of 
road bed, completing 100 per cent to 
date 11,891 feet. B. L. Yates . 


Boundary Fence Construction At 
Carso n ( Nevada ) During the past 
week we have begun with a new terri- 
tory - that is, the East-West line 
of the North boundary; a location 
where the crew left off last year or 
rather last summer because the sand 
was too soft and made traveling un- 
advi sable for delivering the men and 
also materials for the line. This 
time of year the sand isn't so bad 
and the trucks got a little further 
up with the posts and spools of wire. 
Now we are over the bad territory 
and are in a location where the going 
is good. Raymond Sammarjpa . 

Report From Pima ( Arizona ) The 
Maricopa Indians completed the work 
of lowering canal banks on the sec- 
tions where the material had piled 
up the most . Some little further 
work should be done, but the men of 
that district can take care of the 

The work of placing rock water 
spreaders at the heavier structures 
of the Erosion Control Project is 
nearing completion and we hope that 
results will justify the efforts we 
have made to revegetate that sec- 
tion of the Blackwater District. 
Clyde H. Packer . 

Telephone Work At Tulalip ( Wash - 
ington ) The construction of the 
line is nearing completion, wire is 
all slung and tied in, the guy rods 
are all set- The line has not been 
cut in for service as yet. Old 
poles and wire are not yet removed 
and some additional danger trees are 
to be cut. Gayle Smi th • 

Work Progressing At Choctaw - 
Chickasaw Sanatorium ( Oklahoma ) Our 
CCC-ID men have made a very good 

showing this week on maintenance, 
stock water reservoir reinforcing 
of Reservoir No. 4. 

The walls of the structure are 
being reinforced with rock and clay 
soil where needed. Parts of the 
wall had been weakened considerably 
by heavy rains and such work became 
necessary in order to avoid further 
damage. Tony Winlock . 

Spillway Construction At Pine 
Ridge ( South Dakota ) Despite the 
rains and snow of the past week very 
good showing was made on the spill- 
way construction. In the lower por- 
tion of the spillway an unusual meth- 
od of construction is being used, 
wherein a continuous pour is being 
made in each section of the slab, 
from the bottom of the lower cut-off 
wall up over and including the den- 
tated wires. This does away with at 
least one construction joint and 
makes a solid mass of concrete from 
the bottom of the incline to the ex- 
treme lower end of the spillway 
chute. Two cement mixers and two vi- 
brators are bein-^ used at present. 
Raymond Sauser . 

Heavy Rains At Hoopa (Ca lifor - 
nia ) The weather conditions during 
all but one day of this week nave been 
very unusual. Roads were washed out, 
telephone lines down, rain fell in a 
steady downpour day and night. Banks 
of earth on hillsides that have not 
slid for 30 years or more started 
for lower levels . School busses were 
almost put out of business and schools 
were closed. Little could be accom- 
plished in the work except to doctor 
the roads to and from work. Crews 
were kept at work, although little 
could be accomplished. Frank Maness.. 
(From Report of March 25, 1938) 


Good Basket Ball Team At Winne - 
bago ( Nebraska ) The CCC-ID Basket 
Ball Team now has reached its peak. week in getting ready for a 
tournament we played a game and won 
101-54- We entered the tournament 
at Sioux City, Iowa, last week. In 
the first round we won over Pender, 
Nebraska, 50-20. In the second 
round we won over the Morningside 
Independents from Sioux City 25-15. 
In winning these two games we have 
reached the semi-finals to be 
played Friday. After this tourna- 
ment we are entering two more - one 
at Wayne, Nebraska, and the other at 
Macy, Nebraska. Harry Gilmore . 

Various Activities At Uintah 
And Ouray ( Utah ) This week has been 
spent in digging post holes on the 
boundary. We have dug 490 post 
holes and went over some that were 
dug last winter, cleaned them out 
and dug some of them deeper. 

We have located a plot for a 
baseball diamond and have done some 
work on it. The boys are anxious 
to get the diamond ready to play on. 

One man has been riding alone 
on fence maintenance. He has been 
riding the fence line horseback 
and fixing up broken places. Lor en 
Pike . 

Report From Pierre School 
( South Dakota ) The past week has 
been one of the most successful that 
we ever had in the history of CCC-ID 
at Pierre. We have our ground well- 
prepared for seeding and sodding and 
our cedars all set in and watered 
with the exception of two large ones 
and some small ones that we are to 
bring up from the forest. We have 
about a thousand holes dug for trees 

and expect to put in a big bunch of 
native ash and cottonwoods this com- 
ing week. S_. J. Wood . 

Truck Trail Construction At 
Colorado River ( Arizona ) Cutting 
men advanced 3/4 of a mile. Clean- 
up crew right behind cuttir.r crew. 
Stump ere?/ still on first 3/4 of a 
mile of right-of-way. Have advanced 
slowly because of the large number 
of stumps. Miles Parker . 

Numerous Activities At Cherokee 
( North Carolina ) Ha.d a small crew 
working on road side clean-up last 
week; one crew forest planting (set- 
ting out pine); one crew working on 
a trail into our new nursery and an- 
other crew has been doing repair work 
on our truck trails. Roy Bradley . 

Fire Hazard Reduction At Tomah 
( Wisconsin ) It has been necessary 
that work on all truck trails stop 
for the time being owing to the con- 
dition of the roads which make the 
transportation of men difficult. 
Fire hazard reduction work has been 
taken up in order to use the men to 
the best advantage. Our machine op- 
erator has been busy overhauling the 
70 caterpillar" tractor. Kenneth G-. 
Abert . 

Report From Fort Peck ( Montana ) 
The four crews that are clearing un- 
derbrush cleared 100 acres this 
week. Two crews had to move to the 
edge of the timber because of high 
waters. One crew is cutting and 
splitting posts out of the piling 
that was left over. The crew cuts 
around 100 a day. 

Although the roads axe muddy 
and soft the crews are able to get 
to work. James MacDonald. 



3 9088 01625 0425